I have written a number of articles over the years regarding my views and mongrel bees, but have had a hard time with the visual aspects of the problem, but I think the photograph I have just found on Facebook might be useful to visually show the effects of careless selection. It’s very interesting when you look at the offspring of the other two dogs and how some features are reproduced! For example-look at the ears on the son in relation to the mother, and the short legs of the father transfered to the son.
I think this really shows the variation when failing to breed from nonpure strains.
Now apply this to bees and instantly you can see why there is so much variation in breeding stock, and a total lack of predictability in the outcome.
So, I maintain we should be selecting our stock with considerably more care than we have in the last few years.